CH EL1 : Departmental Elective I


List of Electives

  • CH 510 Heterocyclic Chemistry
  • CH 582 Inorganic Photochemistry
  • CH 5ZX Macromolecular Crystallography


Syllabi and Textbooks for Electives

CH 510: Heterocyclic Chemistry

  1. Introduction to heterocyclics and their importance.
  2. Nomenclature of ring systems: (a) Trivial System (b) Replacement system (c) Fusion system, (d) Hantzsch-Widman nomenclature.
  3. Structure, reactivity and synthesis of reduced three membered Heterocycles: (a) Oxirane: Sharpless method, Shi epoxidation, Jacobsen epoxidation, etc, (b) Thiirane (c) Aziridine.
  4. Structure, reactivity and synthesis of reduced four membered Heterocycles: (b) Oxetane (b) Thietane (c) Azetine.
  5. Structure, reactivity and synthesis of reduced five membered Heterocycles: (a) Pyrrole: Paal Knorr, Hantzsch Methods, etc, (b)Thiophene: Paal Knorr, Hinsberg method, etc. (c) Furan: Paal Knorr, Fiest-Benary, Industrial Method, etc.; (d) Pyrazole, Imidazole, Oxazole, Thiazole, (e) Synthesis using modern methods.
  6. Structure, reactivity and synthesis of reduced Six membered Heterocycles: (a) Pyridine: Synthesis, heterynes, pyridones, N-oxides.
  7. Aromatic heterocyclics: a) Indole: Fischer indole synthesis, Bischler synthesis, Madelung synthesis, Domino and cascade methods of indole synthesis, (b) Quinoline and Isoquinoline, (c) Coumarins and Chromones.
  8. Polyhetero ring systems: Click chemistry in heterocycle synthesis.
  9. Synthesis of selected heterocylic natural products.
  10. Some modern methods of heterocycle synthesis with emphasis on organometallic reagents.


  1. Topics in Heterocycles Chemistry. G. W. Gribble. Spinger-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2010.
  2. Modern Heterocyclic Chemistry. 4 Volume Set. Julio Alvarez-Builla, Juan Jose Vaquero, José Barluenga. Wiley. 2011.
  3. L.A. Paquette, Principles of Modern Heterocyclic Chemistry, W.B. Benjamin, Inc., 1978.
  4. Handbook of Heterocyclic Chemistry. Alan R. Katritzky and A. F. Pozharskii, Elservier 2000.
  5. The Chemistry of Heterocycles. T. Eicher, S. Hauptmann, Wiley-VCH 2003 R. K. Bansal, Heterocyclic Chemistry, Synthesis, Reactions and Mechanisms, Wiley Eastern Ltd., 1990.
  6. J.A.J. Joule and G.F. Smith, Heterocyclic Chemistry, ELBS, 2nd Ed., 1982.
  7. F.G. Riddell, The Conformational Analysis of Heterocyclic Compounds, Academic Press, 1980.
  8. B.M. Acheson, An Introduction to the Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, Interscience, 2nd Ed., 1975.


CH 582: Inorganic Photochemistry

Introduction to inorganic photochemistry. Photochemical laws and photochemical kinetics. Photophysical processes. The electronic absorption spectra of inorganic compounds. Characteristics of the electronically excited states of inorganic compounds. Photoelectochemistry of excicted state redox reactions. Photosensitization. Photochemical reactions; substitution, decomposition and fragmentation, rearrangement, and redox reactions. Selective inorganic photochemistry using laser beams. Inorganic photochemistry in biological processes and their model studies.


  1. G. L.Geoffrey and M. S. Wrighton, Organometallic Photochemistry, Academic Press, 1979.
  2. K. K. Rohatagi-Mukherjee, Fundamentals of Photochemistry, Wiley Eastern, 1978.
  3. M. S. Wrighton, Inorganic and Organometallic Photochemistry, ACS Pub.,1978.
  4. V. Balzani and V. Carasiti, Photochemistry of Co-ordination compounds, Academic Press, 1970.

CH 5ZX: Macromolecular Crystallography

Basic Diffraction Theory, Bragg’s law, Miller Indices, Laue Equations, Protein and Nucleic acid Structure, X-ray major sources and production, Xray detectors, Crystallization techniques and principles, symmetry and space groups, reciprocal space, Fourier transform, structure factor equation, phase problem, data collection and processing, methods of structure determination, heavy atom solutions like direct methods, patterson methods, Multiple Anomalous diffraction, Single Anomalous diffraction, sulpur phasing, Isomorphous replacement, Molecular replacement, structure refinement and validation, structure deposition, elucidation of mechanism from structure, biological crystallography examples of virus, ribosomes, membrane proteins, macromolecular assemblies.


  1. Principles of protein x-ray crystallography Jan Drenth
  2. Crystallography Made Crystal Clear , Gale Rodes
  3. Structure determination by X-ray crystallography M. Ladd and R Palmer